An overly-high arch ("hollow foot") can also cause problems. Army studies have found that recruits with the highest arches have the most lower-limb injuries and that flat-footed recruits have the least. Contrary to the general impression, the hollow foot is much more common than the flat foot. Clawfoot, or pes cavus, is a deformity of the foot marked by very high arches and very long toes. Clawfoot is a hereditary condition, but it can also occur when muscles in the foot contract or become unbalanced due to nerve or muscle disorders. Finally, you will be ready to carry out the heel step-downs from a high step, which will increase the forces on your shin muscles to the greatest extent - and build the greatest amount of strength. Use a bench or exercise platform which is about four inches off the ground to carry out your stepping. The actual length of the step is moderate at first (you can progress to long steps later). As before, begin with 15 reps per foot, and progress to three sets of 15 reps as you gain strength and coordination. Rarely is surgery needed, but if all conservative treatments are unsuccessful and you are still in severe pain, then it might be necessary. Surgery is highly effective and is performed on an outpatient basis with twilight sleep. I always call the patient to make sure that they are doing well, and ask for a follow up visit a few days later. Running is very good for your body, and is also a very healthy way to stay in great cardiovascular condition. However this type of activity can be very hard on your feet and can many different feet ailments. So you need to take precautions and treat your feet properly. Icing the ball of the foot twice a day for 15 minutes and/or contrasting between hot and cold for 30 minutes each day will help decrease the inflammation. Anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can also decrease the inflammation and the pain. A neuroma pad will help disperse forefoot pressure, decreasing irritation on the nerve. Steroid injections and nerve sclerosing injections may also be used. Pilates ball exercises are a quintessential part of a pilates regime. You will love it as I do. After a while, you might even consider joining the circus, you'll become so adept with the exercises! If your feet are hurting by the end of the day, listen to what they are trying to tell you. Correctly fitted footwear will leave your feet feeling happy over time. Shoes that are too tight will only cause health trouble in time. Take the time now to invest in shoes that are comfortable and have a proper fit to ensure excellent health for your feet in the years to come. I hope this short guide will help you overcome the minor problems associated with these parts of the body. You should always perform the rotational exercise at least once everyday to relieve tension and stress from your feet.